HERITAGE OF THE PROPHET
Determination of the dept of The Prophet (pbuh) and Implementation of his promises
The Prophet (pbuh) comes to the mosque just before he died, and asks to all people whether there is someone, who has any asset from him. The Prophet insists on asking, and someone demands for money about 3 dirhem from The Prophet. Then his liability is paid.
Again in this time, The Prophet asks to her wife, Aiþe, what happened to money about 7 dirhem (in some hadith 6 dirhem, in other hadith 9 dirhem). Aisha gives money to the Prophet and The Prophet (pbuh) distributes 5 dirhem to 5 needy families from Ensar and gives the left money to his wifes to spend.
Even though The Prophet paid all of his debts before he died, Abu Bakr, who took the management of Muslims after him, saw himself responsible to pay the debts of The Prophet and responsible to make all words given by The Prophet. Câbir (r.a) explains a word of The Prophet to himself: “The Prophet said to me: If the tax incomes from Bahrain comes, I will give you as much as this amount”. But he was dead before income taxes came. Ebu Bekir sent a middleman to everywhere and middleman said like this: “please come to us all people, to whom The Prophet had any debt or word.” I immediately went to Ebu Bekir (r.a) and told him the word given to me by The Prophet and Abu Bakr gave my right.
Properties left by The Prophet and Their distribution
It was not difficult to divide the property of The Prophet because he did not have so many wealth. When he was dead, it was seen that he had nothing other than a house and piece of land.
Based on the information given by Ibn Sa’d, it was not known what happened to camel and sheep herd of The Prophet. The name of the The Prophet’s concubines and slaves were given again by Ibn Sa’d, who also explained that The Prophet made all of slaves and concubines free before he was dead.
When it comes to analyze the procedure carried out for the heritage of The Prophet, his animals and some of his personal belongings were given to Ali’s family and state had his cardigan, sword and ring.
When The Prophet was dead, all of his inheritors, including his daughter, Fâtima, went to Abu Bakr in order to share his wealth and land. But the statement of The Prophet was declared to all of them. The statement was that: “No one can be inheritor for us. All of our wealth is alms.” Based on his statement, all of his lands were given to state. Fâtima insisted on getting her right from Hayber, Fedek ve Benû Nâdir lands. It is proved that Fatima did not have any information about the statement of The Prophet.
Another statement of The Prophet about his heritage is: “My inheritor would not share any dinar. All of my wealth is alms except livelihood of my wifes and expenditures of my servants.”
Based on this statement, The Prophet wifes would go on to get their livelihood incomes determined by The Prophet, until they die. Moreover, servant means jobholders and employees, who worked in fields and engaged with income of The Prophet.
When it comes to rooms, where The Prophet wifes lived, The Prophet gave these rooms to his wifes. Until his wifes dead, they would have a right to live in these rooms; but when they are dead, these rooms would be also included alms of The Prophet.
By this way, The Prophet, who prohibited to utilize from all kinds of incomes collected from Muslims for both himself and his relatives, left all his wealth and lands to management of state for the service of all Muslims. He used all kinds of material and spiritual power in order to bring happiness that surround two worlds of all Muslims , not in order to get wealth for himself and family.
The heritage of the rights owned by The Prophet
The Prophet had many roles, starting from being a prophet to being a president of the state. No one would be inheritor of last prophet in terms of prophethood. Because of this reason, it cannot be imagine transferring of right of The Prophet to another one. On the other hand, the next president of state would be determined based on the will and election of the society. Definitely all rights of The Prophet as president of the state would transfer to next presidents. We will not focus on the all rights of The Prophet as a president, but we will look at the economic rights in terms of religious sect.
Hanafis, based on the implications of the al-Hulafâ al-Râshidun, claims that the share of The Prophet and his relatives perish after The Prophet dead. According to them, The Prophet had these rights just because he was president, not just because he was a prophet.
On the other hand, Ýmam Þâfi Imam Shafii had an opinion that the share of The Prophet should be transferred to next president after The Prophet dead. According to Imam Þâfi, caliphs need to make expenditures for different purposes, including making a present to committees and ambassadors, just like The Prophet did. According to Imam Shafii, presidents of the state have this share just because they dedicate themselves to the benefits of public like The Prophet. Imam Shafii had an opinion that shares of The Prophet from spoils should be inherited to next state presidents not in order to spend personal needs and wants of presidents, but in order to spend for the benefits of the whole Muslim society. We can easily take this information from the book of Imam Shafii and from Mâvardi. And also, as it was understood from the statement of Kâsânî (d. 587), Imam Shafii had an opinion that the presidents of the state also could utilize from these shares personally. There were also other scholars, who thought that these shares should be inherited to next state president in order to spend for the benefits of the society, like Imam Shafii expressed. For instance, Hanbalis have also same opinion with Imam Shafii that the shares of The Prophet should be inherited to next state presidents only in order to spend for the benefits of the society, public services and investments.